|Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchy of eight levels of basic needs that progress from survival to altruism. Each level is dependent on the level before being satisfied.
iCARE is based on the premise that children are unable to achieve at higher levels of Maslow's hierarchy pyramid if they are struggling to satisfy lower level needs.
Search Institute's Developmental Assets
In 1997, The Search Institute identified 40 Developmental Assets necessary for children to have in order to grow into healthy, caring, and responsible adults. Research done by the Search Institute indicates that children with less than 10 of the 40 assets have a 90% chance of dropping out of school or becoming involved with the criminal justice or mental health systems.
The research also found that children with more than 30 of the 40 assets have a 90% chance of receiving a diploma and avoiding involvement with either the criminal or mental health systems. iCARE strives to develop the identified assets.
The National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health
This study identified risk factors that youth face as they develop and mature into adulthood. The study also identified protective factors (see Documents to the right) that help youth to overcome the barriers to success.
Factors in each category include:
- Poverty, violence, criminal activity
- Dysfunctional home environment
- Dysfunctional peer group, school failure
- Substance use and abuse, sexual behavior
iCARE works to decrease the risk factors and increase the protective factors in the community, as promoted in J. David Hawkins and Richard F. Catalano's Communities That Care system that is now part of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) guidance.
- Healthy home relationships
- Positive school and community involvement
- Positive peer group, school success
- Resistance strategies and behaviors
- Community mentors
- Network services and good health care
National Wraparound Initiative Model
Stark County has a large investment in the Wraparound process (see Documents to the right) and is promoting its strength-based, family focused approach as part of effective planning for youth and their families who have complex needs.
It has proven highly successful with children who are involved in multiple systems and their families. It brings a diverse group of stakeholders together-children, their family, agency personnel, community members, neighbors, relatives, and friends to create strategies that will increase assets and build health and wellness.
Authoritative Communities Data
Authoritative Communities are ones that provide connections to caring adults, keep their commitments, and model the Developmental Assets described by Search Institute and the protective factors described by Hawkins and Catalano.
The most widely implemented approach to character education embraced by thousands of schools, communities, public agencies and nonprofits. Character Counts is nonprofit, nonpartisan, and nonsectarian. It promotes the Six Pillars of Character: trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, citizenship. The Character Counts movement has been very active in Stark County for many years.
A Comprehensive System of Learning Supports
Fulfilling the Promise for Student Success: A Comprehensive System of Learning Supports, and the Comprehensive System of Learning Supports Guidelines (CSLS), (see Documents to the right), adopted July 10, 2007, by the Ohio State Board of Education, were developed to provide intervention and prevention guidelines that focus on academic and non-academic barriers to learning. Ultimately, these guidelines help ensure that schools provide academic programs and support services that address the needs of all students.The philosophy of a CSLS is that all students have a basic right to academic programs and services to meet their unique needs to achieve to their fullest potential. It is a systemic approach for diagnosing academic and nonacademic needs that:
- Provides appropriate services to the right students
- Eliminates categorical requirements
- Designs a learning day beyond the school day and school year
- All students have a basic right to academic programs and services to meet their unique needs to achieve to their fullest potential.
- Affords early detection and intervention with students experiencing learning and other problems prevent costly intensive interventions later on.
- Provides guidance for allocation of resources
- Corresponds with school improvement planning (Ohio Improvement Process)
- Assists school districts in districts will meet or exceed Ohio Revised Code (ORC) 3313.6012
- a) provide diagnostic assessment procedures;
- b) provide intervention services based on the results of the diagnostics;
- c) collect data regularly, and;
- d) use the data to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention(s).